The postwar arms race began as early aswhen the Soviet Union began its atomic program and placed agents in the West to steal U. When the Nuclear weapons produce enormous explosive energy. Their significance may best be appreciated by the coining of the words kiloton 1, tons and megaton 1, tons to describe their blast energy in equivalent weights of the conventional chemical explosive TNT.
Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests and Cancer Risks There basically are two kinds of ionizing radiation created by nuclear explosions, electromagnetic and particulate. Radiation emitted at the time of detonation is known as prompt or initial radiation, and it occurs within the first minute of detonation.
Anyone close enough to the detonation to be killed by prompt radiation is likely to be killed by blast and thermal effects, so most concerns about the health effects of radiation focus upon the residual or delayed radiation, which is caused by the decay of radioactive isotopes and is commonly known as radioactive fallout.
If the fireball of the nuclear detonation touches the surface of the Earth, large amounts of soil, water, etc. This material then also becomes highly radioactive; the smaller particles will rise into the stratosphere and be distributed globally while the larger particles will settle to Earth within about 24 hours as local fallout.
Lethal levels of fallout can extend many hundreds of kilometers and miles from the blast area. Contaminated areas can remain uninhabitable for tens or hundreds of years.
Radiation injury has a long-term effect on survivors. Reactive chemicals released by ionization cause damage to DNA and disrupt cells by producing immediate effects on metabolic and replication processes.
While cells can repair a great deal of the genetic damage, that takes time, and repeated injuries make it that much more difficult. One must remember in this context that there are very few hospitals equipped to carry out such remedial procedures.
Radiation injury is measured in a unit called rem. It should be remembered that natural radiation is always present in the atmosphere over most places on the earth, but at lower levels.
However, there is no threshold, universally agreed upon, at which a dose of radiation can be declared safe. People in the area of a nuclear explosion, and those subject to radioactive fallout stand more risk of contracting cancer.
Cancer from radiation exposure will occur over the entire lifetime of exposed populations. For example, only one-half of the predicted numbers of cancer have occurred in the people exposed to the radiation produced by the atmospheric weapons tests and the explosions of the US atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that took place 50 to 60 years ago.
We have no idea what the long-term genetic consequences will be from the massive release of radioactive fallout on a world-wide basis. This pulse is felt over very large distances.
A single high-yield nuclear detonation will create destructive EMP over hundreds of thousands of square kilometers beneath where the explosion occurs. EMP from high-yield nuclear detonations will subject electrical grids to voltage surges far exceeding those caused by lightning.
Modern VLSI chips and microprocessors, present in most communication equipment. TVs, radios, computers and other electronic equipment are extremely sensitive to these surges and immediately get burnt out.
Thus all possible communication links to the outside world are cut off.Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction ; in contrast to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time and can have a.
Chris Royer Junior Cornerstone Group Paper Effects of Nuclear Weaponry on Warfare and Anti-Terrorism The world in which we live is increasingly filled not only with weapons of mass destruction, but with people ready to use them.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy. Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction ; in contrast to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time and can have a.
Nuclear weapons have been used twice, on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August Evidence from these occasions, as well as atmospheric nuclear testing and nuclear power accidents have formed the basis of our knowledge of the effects of nuclear weapons.
Nov 14, · News about Nuclear Weapons, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. One Small Exchange. The very idea of nuclear warfare is worrying enough on its own, but it becomes more terrifying when you realize how little it takes to affect the entire world.