Overview[ edit ] Industrial relations examines various employment situations, not just ones with a unionized workforce. However, according to Bruce E. Kaufman, "To a large degree, most scholars regard trade unionismcollective bargaining and labour— management relations, and the national labour policy and labour law within which they are embedded, as the core subjects of the field.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Firstly, I will give the definitions of employment relations, industrial conflict the three main conflict frames of reference in employment relations.
Then I will explain the conflict in the three perspectives individually. Lastly, I will make a simple comparison about the three perspectives. And employment relations is defined as a rule-making process which is concerned with different levels of analysis, with the employment relationship and with substantive and procedural issues both collectively and individually and within union and non-union contexts Rose,P8.
Generally, there are four main parts that ER is concerned with, which are employment, unemployment and self-employment relationships; the interests of individuals, groups, organizations or the state and how they represent their interests; how individuals manage and promotes their interests within an organization; the management of conflict Rose, Industrial conflict proves itself in strikes and other forms of collective actions which are regarded not only as reflecting pressures within the organization but also and maybe more importantly as stemming from the unequal division society between those who have only their labor to sell Rose, Karl Marx Pluralist perspective employment relations described three levels of conflict of interests between employers and employees: There are three main conflict frames of reference in employment relations: Gennard and Judge,P In unitary perspective, the organization is assumed to be an integrated group of people with a simple authority or loyalty structure, the management Pluralist perspective employment relations staffs work for a common goal and each member in it has the same values, interests and objectives UAMP, Here, conflict is not normal and unnatural, and it is thought to be the result of a lack of fit between the employer and the employee.
From this perspective, trade union is perceived not necessary and the role of it is creating conflict, and it is seen an unwelcome intrusion into the organization from outside competing with management for the loyalty of employees Rose, Trade unions exist either as the result of wickedness or perverseness of individual employees, or because of a failure of management to anticipate and incorporate worker needs and concerns Bray, Deery, Walsh and Waring, Fox argues that the importance of the unitary perspective is declining and has been superseded by the pluralist superseded by the pluralist perspective Rose, The pluralist approach recognizes that different groups exist within an organization and that conflict can, and does, exist between employer and employees.
Gennard and Judge,P The pluralist perspective is regarded as being more appropriate with developments in contemporary society Rose, In the traditional pluralist thought, it is assumed that each interest group has the equal power and competes with each other, and the competition can lead to conflict that cannot be easily avoided and is thought to be normal.
In the 20th century, some changes have given to the pluralist perspective, such as a separation of political and industrial conflict and an acceptance and institutionalization of conflict in both fields Rose, In pluralist perspective, the organization is made up of different interest groups, each group has the right to exist and is legal to the extent, and the pluralist organization has many sources of loyalty and authority in groups, trade unions and other sectional interests Rose, However, conflict can be resolved through institutions, rules and procedures and it can also be minimized if the management discusses with the employees before it makes the final decision Wergin, The pluralist perspective accepts that Trade unions are legal interest groups which have a right to exist representing groups of employees to disagree with management and influence decisions of management.
While it is accepted that management runs the company, it is expected that managers discuss their decisions with employees, and take into account their interests Wergin, Marxist perspective on ER: Industrial and employee relations can only be understood as part of a broader analysis of capitalist society, in contrast to any implicit or explicit assumptions about a balance of power in industry, Marxists emphasize the asymmetry of power between employer and employee Blyton and Turnbullas cited in Arjan,P.
So the class conflict comes from the capitalism, and Marxism argues that the underlying cause of conflict is the class system or the ownership ways of production.
The Marxist perspective is concerned with structure and nature of society and ignores the different interests in improvement from managers and workers Gennard and Judge, Marxists argue that employees are the sellers of their labour and the typical employee needs to be employed more than the typical employer needs to hire a particular labourer Keizer, In this perspective, conflict is normal and inevitable and it cannot be resolved without the abolition of class system.
Viewed from this perspective, Trade unionism is the mechanism used by employees to counteract the power of the management, and to restrain the power of employer; the state is concerned with maintaining the interests of the capitalist or the employer over the interests of the employee Bray, Deery, Walsh and Waring, The Marxist perspective is broader in scope than either unitary or the pluralist perspective because it emphasises the importance of collective action and organization explained in terms of mobilisation theory Rose, The industrial conflict is unavoidable and continuous.
In unitary perspective conflict is not normal and unnatural, and it is thought to be the result of a lack of fit between the employer and the employee. In pluralist perspective conflict is accepted and recognised as endemic in the employment relationship.
In Marxist perspective conflict is normal and inevitable and it cannot be resolved without the abolition of. The Marxist perspective is broader in scope than either unitary or the pluralist perspective because it emphasises the importance of collective action and organization explained in terms of mobilisation theory.
The AgeAvailablehttp: University of Bradford, school of ManagementBibliographies: Theory and Practice 2nd Edition.Union and Labor Relations, - The objective of this paper is to provide the history of Union and Labor Relations, outline the advantages and disadvantages of working in a union environment, and to identify ways in which management can successfully manage in a union environment.
BOOK III. BEFORE speaking of the different forms of government, let us try to fix the exact sense of the word, which has not yet been very clearly explained..
GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL. I WARN the reader that this chapter requires careful reading, and that I am unable to make myself clear to those who refuse to be attentive.
Every free action is produced by the concurrence of two causes; one. Start studying soc not Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. The results of the Brexit referendum are in, and it is chaos.
The United Kingdom is leaving the European Union. Prime Minister David Cameron is stepping down.
The Dow Jones has fallen points. Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the.