Radiology technicians produce clear and accurate images of the body, enabling physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions that would otherwise be difficult to document. Technicians operate sophisticated equipment that includes X-ray, mammography, computerized axial tomography CAT and positron emission tomography PET scan devices. By guiding patients through each step of their medical imaging procedures, these specialists ensure the production of high quality images. They also play an important role in assuaging the anxieties of patients who may be concerned about the procedure.
Aetna considers placement of fiducial markers medically necessary if the above criteria are met, and the radiation target is not clearly visible, and bony anatomy is not sufficient for adequate target alignment.
Aetna considers interfraction image guidance i. For purposes of this policy, to qualify as IMRT, radiation therapy requires highly sophisticated treatment planning utilizing numerous beamlets to generate dosimtery in accordance with assigned dose requirements to the tumor and organs at risk.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, also known as tomotherapy, is a type of stereotactic radiosurgery that delivers a highly conformal, 3D distribution of radiation doses.
This therapy allows for increased precision by the conforming of the radiation to the planned target site while significantly reducing the amount of radiation to surrounding healthy tissues. IGRT is utilized to direct and guide the delivery of radiation to maximize accuracy and precision throughout treatment.
Different techniques are utilized to control the radiation amount given during IMRT. The most common approach is the use of multileaf collimators MLCs. These devices are attached to the linear accelerator.
The leaves act as filters that block out certain areas. This approach utilizes custom made based on the 3D images and the treatment plan high density blocks to control the administration of the radiation.
The blocks are put into place, the patient is positioned and the radiation is delivered. Fiducial markers may be placed using CT, endoscopic or surgical guidance.
Quality assurance in radiologic technology contrast to conventional trial-and-error approach, IMRT uses inverse planning automated optimizationcomputer-controlled radiation deposition, and normal tissue avoidance. The delivery system combines 2 components: When IMRT is used for head and neck tumors, it allows for the treatment of multiple targets with different doses, while simultaneously minimizing radiation to uninvolved critical structures such as the major salivary glands e.
Collimator-based IMRT uses computers to modify the intensity of the beam across each individual field with the use of moving collimators. Conventional treatment with multi-leaf collimation MLC uses static positions of the collimator leaves whereas IMRT allows the dynamic motion of the various collimator leaves during each session of therapy.
With compensator-based IMRT, a pre-shaped piece of material the compensator or modulator is used to modulate the beam.
The amount of modulation of the beam is based on the thickness of material through which the beam is attenuated.
This modulation requires the fabrication and the manual insertion of the modulator into the tray mount of a linear accelerator.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy typically involves inverse treatment planning, although forward treatment planning has been used. Forward treatment planning involves estimating the radiation delivery profile based on the number, directions and shape of the beams.
In inverse treatment planning, the radiation oncologist and physicist determine the treatment target, the normal structures that should be protected, the required radiation dose for the tumor and the tolerated doses for the surrounding normal tissues; the computer then computes the beam profiles needed to yield those results.
The outlined objectives for radiation dose distribution are in prescribed dose volume histograms. The histograms are translated into beam configurations that will deliver tumor and normal tissue doses prescribed. A medical linear accelerator equipped with a dynamic MLC shapes the radiation beams wrapping around the tumor, conforming to its shape and delivers the radiation.
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy involves at least 5 separate ports. The beam angle or gantry position is what determines a port or entry point of the beam.
Segments are part of the individual beam profile and there may be many per port or beam angle. The assessment found that current reports do no allow for a good comparison of relapse or survival data between IMRT and conventional techniques. On the topic of patient safety, the assessment observed that total body irradiation is higher using IMRT and, in theory, may overall double the incidence of fatal secondary malignancies compared with standard external radiotherapy techniques.
The assessment noted that younger patients are especially at risk. The report also noted that large variations exist in total body irradiation between various IMRT techniques. Also use of daily radiation-based imaging for treatment set-up verification adds to the overall radiation exposure.
CNS and Head and Neck Tumors Intensity-modulated radiation therapy may be indicated in CNS and head and neck tumors, due to the close proximity of critical structures in these anatomic regions.
A study by Claus and associates examined the use of IMRT for the treatment of patients with ethmoid sinus tumors.Program Details Program Description.
Medical Radiologic Technology (MRT) is the art and science of correctly positioning the patient and X-ray equipment to produce and record images for visualizing the extent of disease or injury.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues ().Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease.
HAD - Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences. Defines basic clinical laboratory sciences terminology and application. Introduces the specialties within the clinical laboratory sciences profession including microbiology, hematology, chemistry, immunohematology, and immunology and their roles in .
The ACR offers accreditation programs in CT, MRI, breast MRI, nuclear medicine and PET as mandated under the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA) as well as for modalities mandated under the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA).
Pima's credit degrees and certificates will prepare you for a rewarding career - whether you are looking for direct employment or to transfer to a university to complete your bachelor's degree.
The following study guides and resources are available to help you prepare for the quality management certification exam offered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.
These materials contain recommendations from experienced R.T.s for reviewing for the exam.