More Scientific Name s: Salicaceae willow family Common Name s: Willowweidenrindewhite willow S. Anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity has been documented in limited trials.
Production and hosting by Elsevier B. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Near infrared spectroscopy NIRS has been widely applied in both qualitative and quantitative analysis.
There is growing interest in its application to traditional Chinese medicine TCM and a review of recent developments in the field is timely. To present an overview of recent applications of NIRS to the identification, classification and analysis of TCM products, studies describing the application of NIRS to TCM products are classified into those involving qualitative and quantitative analysis.
In addition, the application of NIRS to the detection of illegal additives and the rapid assessment of quality of TCMs by fast inspection are also described. This review covers over studies emphasizing the application of NIRS in different fields.
Furthermore, basic analytical principles and specific examples are used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of NIRS in pattern identification. Near infrared spectroscopy, Traditional Chinese medicine, Quality control, Fast inspection Graphical abstract Chemical identification technology, rapid TLC technology, NIRS technology and microscopy technology are basic parts in fast inspection platform.
Advantages of NIRS are respected to solve problems of less sample size, longer test periods and higher cost for quality control of TCM productions. Open in a separate window 1. Introduction Chinese herbs and patent drugs are important parts of traditional Chinese medicine TCMthe use of which is considerable not only in China but all over the world.
Despite this widespread use, there are many confusing aspects related to TCM such as the fact that many similar TCMs produce different pharmacodynamic effects, one TCM can have two or more names and one name can apply to more than one TCM.
However, there are still deficiencies such as the time period of inspection in the ChP is longer than the 28 days recommended by the Institute for Drug Control IDC in China. Another problem is that TCM components are often pretreated by physical or chemical processes before being tested.
These procedures are complex and multifarious and some of them such as morphological identification lack accuracy since the results depend on the experience and expertise of the TCM pharmacist undertaking the test 5.
Thus, for objectivity, rapidity and accuracy of testing, more rational methods are needed. Since the s, the application of near infrared spectroscopy NIRS in fields involving drugs, food, agriculture, the petroleum industry and environmental protection has developed rapidly 67.
Thus NIRS combined with appropriate mathematical models and pattern recognition techniques allows analysis of a wide variety of sample types rapidly. Second, NIRS is a non-destructive technique which avoids complex sample preparation by chemical or physical processes.
In fact, both solid and liquid samples in different types of packaging stored under different conditions can all be tested without complex pretreatment 11 because of the better penetrability of fiber optics used in NIRS. Third, it provides acceptable accuracy in both qualitative and quantitative analysis to meet the requirements of QC and preliminary screening Qualitative identification TCM herbs and animal products are subject to numerous complex problems in clinical use.
For example, herbs are often adulterated with or replaced by non-therapeutic plants of similar appearance 131415 because the ability to identify a particular herb is very dependent on the experience of the TCM pharmacist.
Identification based on microscopic examination is frequently applied to TCM powders by looking for the presence of microstructures 1617 In addition, it is used to examine slices of TCM plant cells.
The ChP recorded items requiring identification by microscopy and the number increased to in the ChP Some species of TCM are grown in different regions of China where differences in weather conditions and soil environments lead to variations in quality NIRS can then be used to locate the source of a particular sample.
The use of genuine medicinal materials is very important to the integrity of TCM Table 1.
However, many rare and expensive TCM herbs are often adulterated In contrast, Hong-Qu Rubrum Fermentum is not a rare material but a commonly used food additive in China and many Asian countries The problem here is that many substances are similar in appearance to Hong-Qu making identification by microscopy difficult.spectrophotometric analysis and to examine the effect of an interfering substance.
The inorganic analyte being considered in this particular analysis is phosphate and the interfering substance is arsenic. Theory The ﬁrst portion of a spectrophotometric analysis consists of .
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Ion-exchange paper chromatography has proved to be a very simple method in routine toxicological analysis. Nowadays, salicylates are a commonly used group of drugs all over the World, subsequently accidental and suicidal poisonings occur. The sheets can easily be kept for quantitative determination of the drugs identified.
ScienceDirect. Provides a gas chromatography experiment that exercises the quantitative technique of standard addition to the analysis for a minor component, methyl salicylate, in . Quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical substances Many drugs are either in the form of raw material or in the form of formulation.
They can be assayed by making a suitable solution of the drug in a solvent and measuring the absorbance at specific wavelength. Quality Control in a Toxicology Laboratory QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Quantitative toxicology differs from qualitative toxicology in that the interpretations are not subjective.
Cash P, Narwal R, Levitskaya S, Krause S, Murphy D, Mazaheri M. Semi-Quantitative Analysis of Inherent Visible Particles for Biopharmaceutical Products. The quantitative analysis of salicylates, performed according to the internal standard method, revealed mg/ml of salts and esters of salicylic acid (ex-pressed as salicin, salicylic acid, salicyl alcohol and esters of salicylic acid, and their methylated deriva-. quantitative spectrophotometric analysis is the Beer -Lambert law. Spectrophotometric Method Development and Validation of Assay of Paracetamol UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method Development and Validation of Assay of. Paracetamol Tablet Formulation.
However, many problems arise due to the different assay tech Salicylates mg/1 o£.