Humanism — a history of the hijacked Credo of our species Jul 3rd, By admin Category: Term freely applied to a variety of beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm. Most frequently, however, the term is used with reference to a system of education and mode of inquiry that developed in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England. But humanism sought its own philosophical bases in far earlier times and, moreover, continued to exert some of its power long after the end of the Renaissance.
Overview[ edit ] Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a confidential " system " — a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime.
Many definitions tend to postulate or assume that complexity expresses a condition of numerous elements in a system and numerous forms of relationships among the elements. However, what one sees as complex and what one sees as simple is relative and changes with time.
Warren Weaver posited in two forms of complexity: Some definitions relate to the algorithmic basis for the expression of a complex phenomenon or model or mathematical expression, as later set out herein.
Weaver perceived and addressed this problem, in at least a preliminary way, in drawing a distinction between "disorganized complexity" and "organized complexity".
In Weaver's view, disorganized complexity results from the particular system having a very large number of parts, say millions of parts, or many more. Though the interactions of the parts in a "disorganized complexity" situation can be seen as largely random, the properties of the system as a whole can be understood by using probability and statistical methods.
A prime example of disorganized complexity is a gas in a container, with the gas molecules as the parts.
Some would suggest that a system of disorganized complexity may be compared with the relative simplicity of planetary orbits — the latter can be predicted by applying Newton's laws of motion. Of course, most real-world systems, including planetary orbits, eventually become theoretically unpredictable even using Newtonian dynamics; as discovered by modern chaos theory.
These correlated relationships create a differentiated structure that can, as a system, interact with other systems. The coordinated system manifests properties not carried or dictated by individual parts.
The organized aspect of this form of complexity vis-a-vis to other systems than the subject system can be said to "emerge," without any "guiding hand". The number of parts does not have to be very large for a particular system to have emergent properties.
A system of organized complexity may be understood in its properties behavior among the properties through modeling and simulationparticularly modeling and simulation with computers.
An example of organized complexity is a city neighborhood as a living mechanism, with the neighborhood people among the system's parts.
The source of disorganized complexity is the large number of parts in the system of interest, and the lack of correlation between elements in the system.
In the case of self-organizing living systems, usefully organized complexity comes from beneficially mutated organisms being selected to survive by their environment for their differential reproductive ability or at least success over inanimate matter or less organized complex organisms.
Robert Ulanowicz 's treatment of ecosystems. For instance, for many functions problemssuch a computational complexity as time of computation is smaller when multitape Turing machines are used than when Turing machines with one tape are used.
Random Access Machines allow one to even more decrease time complexity Greenlaw and Hoover This shows that tools of activity can be an important factor of complexity.
Varied meanings[ edit ] In several scientific fields, "complexity" has a precise meaning: In computational complexity theorythe amounts of resources required for the execution of algorithms is studied.Table 1: The four levels/modes of processing.
Figures 3, 4, and 5 show how within the processing model, cognition depends upon context. The effectiveness of the contribution of processing activities at each of these levels / modes, depends on the cognitive requirements posed by the specific context. 1. Introduction.
Big data is widely recognized as referring to the very large amounts of data, both structured and unstructured, that organizations are now capable of capturing and attempting to analyze in a meaningful way so that data-driven decision analysis and actionable insights can be obtained. Lori Drew Opinion Handed Down -- Judge Grants Motion To Dismiss on Vagueness Grounds: Readers who are following the Lori Drew case know that back on July 2, Judge Wu "tentatively" ruled that he was going to overturn the jury timberdesignmag.com the time, however, Judge Wu stressed that his decision was not final, and that he would eventually issue an opinion with his final ruling.
Since the concept of GDP in current US dollars is not a topic that most of us are very familiar with, this post, in part, is an exploration of how GDP and inflation calculations on this basis fit in with other concepts we are more familiar with.
The Politics of Alcohol Policy in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of How and Why Brewers Use Strategic Ambiguity to Supplant Policy Initiatives.
Likewise, bad could mean illegal, but politicians would never outlaw vagueness, since if they did, they might have to present detailed policy proposals in their speeches. With that wisecrack, I have gotten to the core problem that vagueness represents.